Introduction to different types of building stones
Building stones are divided into 5 main groups in terms of structure, each of which is briefly described below.
1- Porcelain stone
4- Granite stone
Classification of stones in terms of quality
The quality of decorative stones used in buildings must follow many parameters in terms of expertise. Therefore, the quality rank are divided into four types according to the type of stone, color, the amount of streaks and its impurities after producing, which are:
1- Super or export.
3- First class.
4- Second degree.
A: This stone is from marbles’ category, which by striking on it, the sound of porcelain will be heard. Therefore, it is known as Porcelain stone.
The explanation concerns that:
Marble rocks are crystallized over a long period of time due to the thermal pressure caused by the injection of hot magma, and its granulation is crystalline. Of course, these crystal granulation are also visible to the naked eye.
Note: considering the available color and granulation size in porcelain stone, this stone is divided into three categories called porcelain crystal, gray porcelain and white porcelain.
Porcelain crystal stone:
The coarseness of the proposed granulation has led to the so-called Porcelain crystal.
Gray porcelain stone:
Due to its light to dark color, it is named with gray, black and yellow streaks.
White porcelain stone:
Porcelain is pure with elements such as carbon, chloride, hematite and limonite.
B: Usage of crystal stone (Porcelain):
This type of stone can be used in building facades, paving, stairs, sidewalks and decorative stone artifacts.
A: The constituent elements of crystal or porcelain stone are:
The main material of this stone is calcium carbonate.
Oxides of iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium and manganese are other constituent elements.
D: Types of crystal (Porcelain) stones are:
Azna and Aligudarz porcelain of Lorestan, Qorveh Sanandaj, Sirjan porcelain of Kerman, Leibid of Isfahan and Neyriz Fars porcelain, which are famous for their rigidity and beauty of various types of porcelain stones.
A: Features and characteristics:
1- Marble or limestone is also divided into three categories: porcelain, crystal and cloudy.
2- Cloudy stone, which is a kind of marble, has light and dark non-parallel strips.
3- Marbles are usually known as one of the most important metamorphic stones.
4- Limestones have high water absorption due to their calcareous properties and will have an influence on strength and appearance in weather conditions and climate change.
5- This stone is resistant to heat and is vulnerable to acidic substances.
Therefore, adhesive, resin or epoxy are usually used to increase the strength of marble stones. But in general it can be said that marble does not have high strength.
B: Features of marble/ limestone:
1- High abrasion, great variety in color and design, low porosity and relative and suitable strength after being produced.
A: Effective elements in a variety of marble colors:
1- Pure marble is white and shiny.
2- Black and gray marble is composed of carbonaceous materials.
3- Some marble stones have different colors of green, which are created due to the presence of different chlorites and silicates.
Some marble stones are decorated with red and pink stones, which are the result of the presence of fine particles called hemonite.
The presence of limonite in some marble stones causes them turn cream to yellow.
D: Elements of marble/ limestone:
1- The base of this limestone is calcium carbonate and it also has magnesium carbonate, calcite, dolomite and crystal.
2- Limestone is known by names such as dolomitic and calcite marble due to the amount of magnesium carbonate in it.
E: Usage of Limestone:
1- Due to the lack of durability against weather conditions, so most marble stones are used in the closed spaces of buildings.
2- It will be very suitable for covering the floor, interior walls of the building and stairs.
3- Marble has many calcareous streaks, which leads to water absorption and non-uniform erosion. Therefore, it should be used with caution in crowded places, kitchen floors, building facades and parking lots.
1- Most marble is extracted from mines in Fars, Isfahan, Azerbaijan, Lorestan, Kermanshah and Khorasan provinces.
2- Stones of the cold mines, such as Hersin and Khoy marbles, are among the most resistant types of marble due to their dense material.
G: Types of Limestone:
1- Turkish Late marble, Indian green marble, Porcelain Nescafe marble and other imported marbles.
2- Dehbid Marble, Abadeh Shiraz, Dehbid Khorasan (Special) Joshqan, Salsali, Adavi Marble, Bajestan, Gavoshan Kurdistan, Gandmak, Hersin, Partavousi, Khoy Marble (West Azerbaijan), Namin, Chehrak, Karamat Dihan, Si Makan, Paradise Marble (Senator), Mahkam (Diamond) Marble, Lashtar Isfahan, Golden Rose (Red Ardestan) Marble, Golden Black, Emperor, Conglomera, Black Valley Leopard, Marmara Marble and Ice Flower Marble
1- Travertine is one of the most widely used hard limestones in the construction industry.
2- Travertine is formed in layers from sediments. Therefore, if the cutting of vertical stone is done, wavy stone will be ctreated, and if the cutting of stone is horizontal and in the direction of layers, waveless stone is produced, each of which will have its own beauty.
3- Travertine is divided into super, premium, first grade, and second grade categories according to its color, design and quality, and will be cut in different dimensions according to the customer’s order.
4- Beauty, design and color variety, strength, adhesion, high abrasion and considerable polishing are the characteristics of travertine.
Travertine is one of the porous rocks in which the porosity is caused by the evaporation of carbon dioxide. Therefore, this inherent porosity is one of the characteristics of this stone and nevertheless has the ability of good working tools.
6- Intrinsic porosity of travertine stone has a great role in the adhesion of this stone to mortar, thermal and acoustic insulation.
B: Elements of travertine:
Elements such as calcium carbonate, stalactite and stagmite are a high percentage of the constituents of travertine.
A small percentage of travertine ores contain iron, silica and manganese.
A: Effective elements in a variety of travertine stone colors:
1- The factors influencing the formation of color and design of travertine stones are its compounds such as iron, calcium and other impurities; the less these elements are, the lighter the color of the stone will be.
2- The presence of elements such as iron, silica and manganese is the reason for the variety of colors ranged from white, cream, yellow, red, brown, black, gray and lemon.
D: Usage of travertine:
1- Different types of travertines are divided according to color and are widely used as facade paints in Iran.
2- It is used in luxury works, ingots and tools, interior decoration, floors, walls and even stair stones.
E: Travertine mines:
Rich mines are in the central provinces of Yazd, Isfahan, East and West of Azerbaijan.
Types of travertine:
1- Atashkooh Mahallat Travertine, Abbas Abad of Mahallat, Haji Abad of Mahallat, Darre Bukhari and Ab Garm of Mahallat
2- Isfahan Ramsheh cream travertine, Azarshahr, Mako and Isfahan lemon travertine, Azarshahr and Isfahan red travertine, Yazd brown travertine, Tane Derakhti (walnut) travertine.
3- Silver travertine (smoky or brown) and wood design travertine.
A: Properties and characteristics of granite:
1- Granites are among the igneous rocks that are important in terms of high hardness, transparency and stunning beauty.
2- Granites have a special beauty in terms of color and bright, and red and pink granites are very valuable.
3- Granites are among the most resistant stones, low porosity, water resistant and low water absorption, heat resistant, resistant to abrasion and corrosion and are compatible with other building materials.
4- Granites are not thermal and sound insulation and have low adhesion to mortar, which are considered as disadvantages of granites.
B: Effective elements in a variety of granite colors:
1- The variety of colors in granite is great, but the color integration in its types is not very widespread.
2- The color in granite rocks depends on the type of mineral and its amount in granite.
3- Therefore, the variety of color ranges from gray to white and from black and green to gray, chocolate, orange, cream and red.
4- Quartz, feldspar, mica, biotite and amphibole are some of the minerals in granite which are effective in rock color.
A: Elements of granite:
1- In the chemical composition of granites, silicon and aluminum are the main elements and the rest include elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium and titanium, which are present in the form of various silicates in the structure of granite minerals.
D: Application of granite:
1- Granite is considered relatively expensive due to its high cost. Therefore, it is mostly used in the facades of important buildings.
2- Granite stone can also be used for stairs, parking lots, floors and walls of buildings.
3- The use of granite stone for counters, cabinets, landscaping, sidewalks and decorative works is also possible and unobstructed.
E: Granite stone mines:
1- The provinces of South Khorasan, Razavi, West and East of Azerbaijan, Isfahan, Yazd, Zanjan and Hamedan are rich in granite.
Variaties of granite:
The most famous granite stones are:
1- Nehbandan granite, Khorram Darreh Zanjan granite, Dolphin granite Shahin Dej of West Azerbaijan, Black granite of Sarkan Hamedan, Natanz black granite, Hamedan cotton granite, Khorasan green granite, Red and green Nain granite, Yazd red granite, Mashhad pearl granite, And Zanjan Peach Granite.
A: properties and characteristic of marble:
1- Marble is produced from the function of limestone hot springs and is known as the green brand of Onix.
Marbles are usually luxury decorative stones and can be seen in brown, cream, red, white, yellow, light green, pink and green.
3- Crystal marble is a metamorphic limestone and is composed of one or more minerals and can be polished.
4- Patterns, special streaks and beautiful color of marble have increased the attractiveness of this stone.
B: Effective elements in a variety of marble colors:
1- Iron, aluminum and magnesium are among the elements that are very effective in forming the variety of colors and designs of marble.
2- Hydrated iron oxide in marble makes the stone to be brown or yellow, and anhydrous iron oxide will turn the marble to pink or red.
3- The color of blue, gray or black marble is due to the presence of manganese and coal in marble.
4- Magnesium in marble, under the influence of metamorphism with other materials, produces green marble.
A: Elements of marble:
1- The main materials of marble stone are calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
Calcite, dolomite, and aragonite also play a role in marble production.
D: Features of marble:
1- Beautiful color, excellent glossy polish, abrasion, great polishing, hardness and good resistance are the features of marble.
2- Resistant to weather conditions, unique attraction and having significant patterns, designs and a little porosity are also the characteristics of marble.
E: Marble usage:
1- It has been used in pilgrimage places for a long time.
2- It is used in hotel lobbies, commercial, office and residential complexes and luxury places.
3- Decorative marble is usually cut in the form of slabs, bookmatch and formatch, and their arrangement inside the building creates the image of very beautiful appearance.
4- Marble in particular has a very suitable use in decoration, stairs, interior facade, columns and floors.
5- Marble is used as a unique raw material in stone and sculpture industries.
The most important marble mines in the country are:
1- Abbas Abad Jolfa green marble mine, Azarshahr (Abbarik) green marble, Shahin Dej green marble, Yazd (Turanposht) green marble, Yazd (Boragh) green marble, Sirjan Tanguieh, Deh Rostam Bam, Mahallat and Fars province.
2- Kashmar orange marble, Khorasan Gulf marble, pink marble of Naghadeh, Kerman marble, and Isfahan (Joshqan) marble mine.
G:Types of marble
From different types of marble to green marble. Pointed with white, yellow, red and orange streaks, honey marble, pink marble, colored marble, orange marble, blue marble, white marble.